Category Archives: AI

Why do certain places like Hawaii have high incomes and high costs? Where does the money come from?

On Japanese TV, there are often programs about how prices are different in other countries.
This includes very expensive areas such as Switzerland and Hawaii.
It is understandable that Switzerland can have high incomes due to a long history of private banks and multinational organizations, but where does the money from a place like Hawaii come from? A living wage in Hawaii is over $100,000 annually at this point, which sounds ridiculous. However, somehow there is money for this to be possible for many. Why?

I decided to ask Bard AI with carefully prompted questions, and got some useful information.


Hawaii has very high prices, but also high salaries even for normal jobs. Where does this money come from?


Hawaii has a high cost of living, but also high salaries for even normal jobs because of a number of factors, including:

  • Tourism: Hawaii is a popular tourist destination, and the tourism industry is a major driver of the state’s economy. Tourists are willing to pay high prices for goods and services, which helps to support high salaries for workers in the tourism industry.
  • Limited supply of land: Hawaii has a limited amount of land, which drives up the cost of housing and other expenses. This also means that there is a high demand for labor, which contributes to higher salaries.
  • Government jobs: Hawaii has a large government sector, and government jobs typically pay well. This helps to boost the overall salary level in the state.
  • Unionization: Hawaii has a high unionization rate, which also helps to drive up wages.

The money that supports Hawaii’s high salaries comes from a variety of sources, including:

  • Tourist spending: Tourists spend billions of dollars each year in Hawaii on hotels, food, activities, and other goods and services. This spending helps to support the jobs and businesses that pay high salaries.
  • Government spending: The federal and state governments spend billions of dollars each year in Hawaii on military bases, government programs, and other expenses. This spending also helps to support the state’s economy and high salaries.
  • Local businesses: Many local businesses in Hawaii, such as construction companies and healthcare providers, also pay high salaries. These businesses are able to pay high salaries because they charge high prices for their goods and services.

Overall, Hawaii’s high salaries are supported by a combination of factors, including tourism, the limited supply of land, government jobs, and unionization. The money that supports these high salaries comes from a variety of sources, including tourist spending, government spending, and local businesses.


Does this phenomenon also occur in other similar areas like Guam?


Yes, the phenomenon of high prices and high salaries for even normal jobs also occurs in other similar areas like Guam. This is because Guam is also a popular tourist destination, has a limited supply of land, and a large government sector. Additionally, Guam has a relatively high unionization rate.

Here is a breakdown of the factors that contribute to Guam’s high prices and high salaries:

  • Tourism: Guam is a popular tourist destination, and the tourism industry is a major driver of the island’s economy. Tourists are willing to pay high prices for goods and services, which helps to support high salaries for workers in the tourism industry.
  • Limited supply of land: Guam is a relatively small island with a limited amount of land. This drives up the cost of housing and other expenses, which also contributes to higher salaries.
  • Government jobs: The US federal government and the government of Guam employ a large number of people. Government jobs typically pay well, which helps to boost the overall salary level on the island.
  • Unionization: Guam has a relatively high unionization rate. Unions help to negotiate higher wages and benefits for their members, which also contributes to higher salaries on the island.

The money that supports Guam’s high salaries comes from a variety of sources, including tourist spending, government spending, and local businesses.

It is important to note that, while Guam has high salaries, it also has a high cost of living. This means that the purchasing power of Guam residents is not necessarily higher than that of residents in other parts of the United States.

Overall, the phenomenon of high prices and high salaries for even normal jobs is common in popular tourist destinations with a limited supply of land and a large government sector. Guam is one example of such a place.


Do these tourist-focused area also keep more money because more money is coming in than out?


Yes, tourist-focused areas do tend to keep more money than other areas because more money is coming in than out. This is because tourists typically spend more money than they bring with them when they visit a tourist-focused area. This money is then redistributed throughout the local economy, supporting businesses and workers in the area.

For example, a tourist might spend $1,000 on a hotel room, food, and activities during a week-long vacation in Hawaii. Of that $1,000, the hotel might keep $500, the restaurant might keep $200, and the tour company might keep $300. The hotel, restaurant, and tour company would then use that money to pay their employees, buy supplies, and pay rent.

This process of money being spent and redistributed throughout the local economy is known as the “multiplier effect.” The multiplier effect can be quite strong in tourist-focused areas, as tourists tend to spend a lot of money on a variety of goods and services.

As a result of the multiplier effect, tourist-focused areas tend to have higher incomes and lower unemployment rates than other areas. This is because the money that tourists spend in these areas helps to support businesses and workers, which creates a more prosperous economy.

However, it is important to note that the economic benefits of tourism are not evenly distributed. For example, large hotel chains and tour companies often own a large share of the tourism industry in many tourist-focused areas. This means that a significant portion of the money that tourists spend in these areas flows to these large corporations, rather than to local businesses and residents.

Overall, tourist-focused areas do tend to keep more money than other areas because more money is coming in than out. This is due to the multiplier effect, which is a process of money being spent and redistributed throughout the local economy. However, it is important to note that the economic benefits of tourism are not evenly distributed.


As you can see from the responses, the following are reasons for the high amount of money in places like Hawaii:

  • Tourism: Increasing income.
  • Government jobs: Increasing income.
  • Limited supply of land: Increasing prices.

The interesting part of tourism, especially in place like Hawaii or Guam, is that tourists typically take in lots of money, but take out very little, leading to what is called the “multiplier effect” where money accumulates in an area. More so because these isolated island areas make it a lot more difficult for money to get out.

Does Bard have access to your personal information? Could personal information leak in prompt responses?

I have been using Bard AI for finding answers to issues which are difficult to solve via traditional search engines.
I try to publish useful responses here and elsewhere so that I can reference them later and share the information with others.

However, I became a little concerned that maybe personal information could be leaked in prompt responses, so decided to ask Bard about this.


Does Bard know about me? Provide detailed information about me.


I can’t access your personal information, so I don’t know anything about you specifically. However, I can provide some general information about the people who use me.

  • Most people who use me are interested in technology, AI, and the future.
  • They are also curious and creative. They like to ask me questions about the world and to try new things.
  • Some people use me for work, while others use me for fun. I am happy to help people with a variety of tasks, from writing emails to generating creative text formats of text content.

I am still under development, but I am learning more about the people who use me every day. I am excited to see what the future holds for me and for the people who use me to learn, create, and explore.


Is there any way to allow Bard access to know who me is?


Yes, there is a way to allow Bard access to know who you are. You can create a Google account and link it to your Bard account. This will give Bard access to your name, email address, and other basic information about you. You can also choose to share more information with Bard, such as your interests, hobbies, and profession.

To link your Google account to your Bard account, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Bard website and sign in to your Bard account.
  2. Click on the “Settings” tab.
  3. Under “Account Information,” click on the “Link Google Account” button.
  4. Follow the instructions on the screen to link your Google account.

Once you have linked your Google account to your Bard account, you can choose to share more information with Bard by editing your profile. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Go to the Bard website and sign in to your Bard account.
  2. Click on the “Profile” tab.
  3. Edit your profile information and click on the “Save” button.

You can also choose to share more information with Bard on a case-by-case basis. For example, if you are asking Bard a question about your personal life, you can provide Bard with more context about your situation. This will help Bard to give you a more accurate and helpful response.

It is important to note that Bard is still under development, and it may not always be able to understand and respond to your requests in a perfect way. However, by providing Bard with more information about yourself, you can help Bard to learn more about you and to provide you with better responses.


So it seems that Bard doesn’t know anything about me by default, but linking your Google account with Bard is possible. Good to know!

Easy to miss issue with built-in PHP server – No Apache, no .htaccess.

I had an issue where I could not get the .htaccess of a PHP project I had to work.
I couldn’t understand why simple .htaccess code was not working.
After some wasted time, the obvious came to light, I was testing the project through scripts that started the built-in PHP server. Does the PHP server handle .htaccess files? A quick Bard AI request reveals the issue,


Does the in built PHP server handle .htaccess files?


No, the built-in PHP server does not handle .htaccess files. .htaccess files are specific to the Apache web server, and the built-in PHP server is not an Apache web server.

If you need to use .htaccess files, you will need to use a real web server, such as Apache or Nginx.

There are a few workarounds for using .htaccess files with the built-in PHP server. One workaround is to create a PHP script that parses the .htaccess file and handles all routing. Another workaround is to use a real web server to serve the .htaccess file, and then use the built-in PHP server to serve the rest of your website.

However, it is generally not recommended to use the built-in PHP server in production. It is intended for development and testing purposes only.


There you go. The built-in PHP server is not an Apache web server. “use a real web server, such as Apache or Nginx.” : )

When using Ebay.com, how can I promote my own webpage/business?

I asked Bard AI, and got the following interesting response:


There are a few ways to promote your own webpage/business when using eBay.com:

  • Include a link to your website in your “About Me” page. This is the most important place to include a link to your website, as it is the most likely place that potential customers will look for more information about you and your business.
  • Mention your website in your listings. You can do this in the description of your listings, or in the Q&A section. Be sure to explain why potential customers should visit your website, such as to view more products, get better deals, or learn more about your company.
  • Use eBay Promoted Listings. This is a paid advertising program that allows you to promote your listings to a wider audience. You can target your ads to specific keywords or demographics, and you can set a daily budget.
  • Offer discounts or promotions to eBay buyers who visit your website. This is a great way to incentivize buyers to leave eBay and visit your website, where you can offer them a better deal or a wider selection of products.

Here are some additional tips for promoting your webpage/business on eBay:

  • Make sure your website is well-designed and easy to navigate.
  • Offer competitive prices and shipping rates.
  • Provide excellent customer service.
  • Respond to buyer inquiries promptly and professionally.
  • Get positive feedback from buyers.
  • Be active in the eBay community. Participate in forums and answer questions from other buyers.

By following these tips, you can use eBay to promote your own webpage/business and reach a wider audience of potential customers.

Here are some things to keep in mind when promoting your webpage/business on eBay:

  • eBay does not allow you to include links to your website in your listing titles or descriptions. However, you are allowed to mention your website in the Q&A section of your listings.
  • You are not allowed to advertise your website in a way that is misleading or deceptive. For example, you cannot claim that your website is the “official” website for a particular brand or product.
  • You are not allowed to spam eBay buyers with messages about your website.

If you have any questions about eBay’s policies on promoting your website, you can contact eBay customer support for assistance.


The following really sticks out as useful:

  • Promotion in “About me” page.
  • Mention website in Q&A section of listings.
  • Don’t mention website elsewhere.

The CSP(Content Security Policy) of a page is blocking a request. How do I find out the CSP of the page using JavaScript?

When dealing with external requests, CORS errors can often occur.
CORS settings have generally become standardized to use CSP (Content Security Policy) settings.
These CSP settings can be set in multiple places, so it can be a little confusing what the final CSP is.
I asked AI (Bard), and got a useful (Bard has sometimes responded with incorrect responses) response.


The CSP(Content Security Policy) of a page is blocking a request. How do I find out the CSP of the page using JavaScript?


There are two ways to find out the CSP of a page using JavaScript:

  1. Check the HTTP response headers. This is the most reliable way to find the CSP, as it is the source of truth. To do this, you can use the document.documentURI property to get the URL of the page, and then use the XMLHttpRequest object to make a request to the URL. Once you have the response, you can check the Content-Security-Policy header to get the CSP.
  2. Check the <meta> tags. CSPs can also be specified using <meta> tags in the HTML head section. To check for a CSP in a <meta> tag, you can use the document.querySelector() method to find the <meta> tag with the http-equiv attribute set to Content-Security-Policy. If the <meta> tag is found, you can get the CSP from the content attribute.

Here is an example of how to find the CSP of a page using JavaScript:

JavaScript
function getCSP() {
  // Check the HTTP response headers.
  const xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
  xhr.open('GET', document.documentURI);
  xhr.send();
  xhr.onload = function() {
    if (xhr.status === 200) {
      const csp = xhr.getResponseHeader('Content-Security-Policy');
      if (csp) {
        return csp;
      }
    }
  };

  // Check the <meta> tags.
  const metaTag = document.querySelector('meta[http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy"]');
  if (metaTag) {
    return metaTag.content;
  }

  // If no CSP is found, return null.
  return null;
}

// Get the CSP of the page.
const csp = getCSP();

// Do something with the CSP, such as logging it to the console.
console.log(csp);
Use code with caution.

If the CSP of the page is blocking a request, you can try the following:

  • Whitelisting the request in the CSP. This is the most secure option, as it allows you to explicitly specify which requests are allowed. To do this, you need to add the source of the request to the CSP. For example, if the CSP is blocking a request to https://example.com/script.js, you would need to add the following to the CSP:
script-src https://example.com/
  • Using a report-only CSP. This option allows you to test changes to your CSP without blocking any requests. To do this, you need to add the report-only directive to the CSP header. For example:
Content-Security-Policy-Report-Only: script-src https://example.com/

This will cause the browser to report any violations of the CSP to the specified URI, but the requests will not be blocked.

  • Disabling the CSP. This is the least secure option, as it disables all CSP protections. To do this, you need to remove the Content-Security-Policy header from the HTTP response.

Important: Be very careful when disabling or changing a CSP, as this can make your website vulnerable to attack.


If a page has CSP both in the response headers and in one or more meta tags, how are they merged?


If a page has CSP both in the response headers and in one or more meta tags, the CSP in the response headers is used. The meta tags are ignored.

This is because the CSP in the response headers is the most authoritative source of the CSP for the page. The meta tags are only used if there is no CSP in the response headers.

This behavior is specified in the CSP specification:

If multiple policies are received for the same resource, the HTTP response header value takes precedence over the HTML meta element value.

If you need to specify a CSP for a page, it is best to do so in the response headers. This will ensure that the CSP is applied consistently, regardless of whether the page is loaded from the server or from a cache.

If you are using a meta tag to specify a CSP, be aware that it will be ignored if there is a CSP in the response headers. You should also be aware that meta tags are not supported in all browsers.


What about if multiple CSP meta tags exist?


If a page has multiple CSP meta tags, they are merged into a single CSP. The order in which the meta tags are merged is not specified in the CSP specification, so it is best to avoid using multiple meta tags to specify a CSP.

If you need to specify a CSP for a page, it is best to do so in the response headers. This will ensure that the CSP is applied consistently, regardless of whether the page is loaded from the server or from a cache.

If you are using meta tags to specify a CSP, be aware that they may be merged in an unexpected order. You should also be aware that meta tags are not supported in all browsers.

Here is an example of how multiple CSP meta tags may be merged:

HTML
<head>
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="script-src 'self'">
  <meta http-equiv="Content-Security-Policy" content="style-src 'self'">
</head>
Use code with caution.

This would be merged into the following CSP:

script-src 'self'; style-src 'self'

The order of the directives in the merged CSP is not guaranteed. It is possible that the style-src directive could come before the script-src directive.

It is best to avoid using multiple CSP meta tags to specify a CSP. If you need to specify a CSP for a page, it is best to do so in the response headers.


From these responses it can be concluded that:

  • CSP headers ('Content-Security-Policy') are prioritized and should be used where possible.
  • Multiple meta tags with CSP are possible. However, this is not recommended.
  • When both CSP headers and meta tags are used, the CSP headers only are applied.
  • When multiple meta tags are used, depending on the browser implementation, they may be merged.

WordPress public routes, both API and standard routes

I wanted a list of public WordPress routes for quickly finding routes to test and check security issues, so I generated a list using Bard AI.

My first attempt only provided the API routes. They can be seen below:

===

The following is a list of all routes a site on WordPress can be publicly accessed from by default:

  • /wp-json/ – The root of the WordPress REST API.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/ – The namespace for the WordPress core REST API.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/posts/ – A route for managing posts.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/posts/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific post, where {id} is the post ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/pages/ – A route for managing pages.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/pages/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific page, where {id} is the page ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/categories/ – A route for managing categories.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/categories/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific category, where {id} is the category ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/tags/ – A route for managing tags.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/tags/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific tag, where {id} is the tag ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/users/ – A route for managing users.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/users/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific user, where {id} is the user ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/media/ – A route for managing media.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/media/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific media item, where {id} is the media item ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/comments/ – A route for managing comments.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/comments/{id}/ – A route for managing a specific comment, where {id} is the comment ID.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/settings/ – A route for managing settings.
  • /wp-json/wp/v2/search/ – A route for searching.

In addition to these default routes, WordPress also allows plugins and themes to register their own custom routes.

It is important to note that the WordPress REST API is exposed by default, but it can be disabled in the WordPress admin settings.

===

I tried again asking for non-API routes, and got a list of important standard routes:

===

The following is a list of all non-API routes a site on WordPress can be publicly accessed from by default:

  • / – The home page of the site.
  • /about/ – The about page of the site.
  • /contact/ – The contact page of the site.
  • /blog/ – The blog page of the site.
  • /category/{slug}/ – A page for displaying all posts in a specific category, where {slug} is the category slug.
  • /tag/{slug}/ – A page for displaying all posts in a specific tag, where {slug} is the tag slug.
  • /archives/{year}/{month}/ – A page for displaying all posts published in a specific year and month.
  • /author/{author_name}/ – A page for displaying all posts published by a specific author, where {author_name} is the author’s name.
  • /wp-login.php – The WordPress login page.
  • /wp-register.php – The WordPress registration page.
  • /wp-admin/ – The WordPress admin dashboard.

In addition to these default routes, WordPress also allows plugins and themes to register their own custom routes.

It is important to note that the WordPress admin dashboard is not publicly accessible by default, but it can be made publicly accessible by changing the WordPress admin settings.

===

This is sufficient for me now, but please note, this is probably not an extensive list.
For an extensive list, please check the official WordPress documentation.

WordPress backup (BackWPup) WARNING File name is too long to save correctly in TarGz archive – tar and zip file name limits explored

While attempting to backup WordPress, I noticed that a warning was being shown.
This warning stated that “WARNING: File name wp-content/uploads/… is too long to be save correctly in TarGz archive”.
The warning seems clear enough, but how long exactly is “too long”, and can this be improved upon?

Searching online gave a few examples of people with similar issues:

The consensus on fixing this seems to be to use “zip” instead.
This is also the officially provided solution for this: WARNING: FILE NAME TOO LONG TO BE SAVED

OK, if you don’t care about any further details, this is the solution. Use “zip”.
I was interested as to the limitations of tar and zip, and if they could be improved upon, so I asked through Bard AI with an appropriate prompt shown below:

===

When creating a backup with tar.gz, I sometimes get a file name too long warning. It seems that only 100 character file names are supported. Is this 100-character limit something that applies to all available tar executables? Is there a way to allow longer file names? Does this limitation differ by Linux, Windows, or Linux distribution/version?

===
The 100-character limit on file names in tar archives is a limitation of the original tar format, which was defined in 1979. This format is still used by many tar implementations today, including the default format used by the GNU tar command.

However, there are also a number of tar implementations that support longer file names. One example is GNU tar with the --format=gnu option. This format allows for file names of up to 255 characters.

Another option is to use a different archive format altogether. For example, the zip format supports file names of up to 65535 characters.

Whether or not you can use longer file names in a tar archive will depend on the tar implementation that you are using and the format of the archive.

To answer your specific questions:

  • The 100-character limit on file names does not apply to all available tar executables. There are a number of tar implementations that support longer file names.
  • There are a few ways to allow longer file names in a tar archive. One option is to use the GNU tar command with the --format=gnu option. Another option is to use a different archive format altogether, such as zip.
  • The limitation on file name length in tar archives does not differ by Linux, Windows, or Linux distribution/version. It is a limitation of the original tar format, which is used by many tar implementations on all platforms.

If you are creating a tar archive, and you get a file name too long warning, you can try one of the following:

  • Use a tar implementation that supports longer file names, such as GNU tar with the --format=gnu option.
  • Use a different archive format altogether, such as zip.
  • Rename the files with longer names to shorter names.
  • Split the files with longer names into multiple files with shorter names.

===

The important parts from above are:
  • tar file name character limit is 100 by default
  • –format=gnu option makes the file name character limit 255
  • zip file name character limit is 65535
OK, so from this it can be concluded that zip file names can be long enough for all but extreme cases.
100 characters is definitely very small, so is an issue.
255 is still not very large, so zip definitely is safer.
I asked AI again if there was a way to increase the character limit further for tar, but it stated there was no way to do this. Maybe there is, but even if, it probably isn’t easy to do, so use zip seems like the way to go.

List of known/common standardized JSON Schema properties.

The JSON Schema standard is extensive and descriptive, but it can lead to taking too much time to quickly find the name of a property, etc.
I decided to generate a list of important JSON Schema properties so they can be easy to find when needed.
The following was generated using Bard AI, and seems to be accurate.

Please provide a list of all known standardized properties in jsonschema with the property name, followed by a colon + space delimiter, and the followed by a description of the property. Each should be on one new line.


The following is a list of all known standardized properties in JSON Schema, with the property name, followed by a colon + space delimiter, and then followed by a description of the property, each on a new line:

  • $schema: The URI of the JSON Schema version used to define the schema.
  • $ref: A reference to another JSON Schema that defines the schema for this object.
  • $id: A unique identifier for the schema.
  • title: A human-readable title for the schema.
  • description: A human-readable description of the schema.
  • type: The data type of the value that the schema validates.
  • enum: An array of valid values for the schema.
  • const: A constant value that the schema validates.
  • multipleOf: A number that the value must be divisible by.
  • maximum: The maximum value that the schema validates.
  • exclusiveMaximum: A boolean value indicating whether the maximum value is exclusive or inclusive.
  • minimum: The minimum value that the schema validates.
  • exclusiveMinimum: A boolean value indicating whether the minimum value is exclusive or inclusive.
  • maxLength: The maximum length of a string that the schema validates.
  • minLength: The minimum length of a string that the schema validates.
  • pattern: A regular expression that the value must match.
  • maxItems: The maximum number of items in an array that the schema validates.
  • minItems: The minimum number of items in an array that the schema validates.
  • uniqueItems: A boolean value indicating whether the items in an array must be unique.
  • maxProperties: The maximum number of properties in an object that the schema validates.
  • minProperties: The minimum number of properties in an object that the schema validates.
  • required: An array of property names that must be present in an object that the schema validates.
  • dependentRequired: An object mapping property names to arrays of property names. If a property that is present in the first array is present in the object, then all of the properties in the second array must also be present.
  • additionalProperties: A boolean value indicating whether additional properties are allowed in an object that the schema validates.
  • properties: An object mapping property names to JSON Schemas that define the schemas for those properties.
  • patternProperties: An object mapping regular expressions to JSON Schemas that define the schemas for properties that match those regular expressions.
  • allOf: An array of JSON Schemas that the value must validate against.
  • anyOf: An array of JSON Schemas that the value must validate against at least one of.
  • oneOf: An array of JSON Schemas that the value must validate against exactly one of.
  • not: A JSON Schema that the value must not validate against.

Please note that this list is not exhaustive, and there may be other standardized properties in JSON Schema that are not listed here.

 

How to create a valid definitions only jsonschema file?

Sometimes it is useful to group jsonschema to be referenced elsewhere when desired like a utility module but for schema.
However, it is a little confusing on how to group these definitions.
There is also the issue of making sure the schema is still valid because jsonschema libraries that handle things such as validation may not accept custom formats.

I asked Bard AI, and got an appropriate response, so I have shared the information below:

I want to create a jsonschema file that only contains definitions(jsonschema that can be referenced).
I don’t need the root object to be a usable schema.
I want the file to be a valid jsonschema.

Is this possible, and please provide an example.

Yes, it is possible to create a JSON schema file that only contains definitions. This is a perfectly valid way to use JSON schema, and it can be useful for organizing your schemas and making them more reusable.

Here is an example of a JSON schema file that only contains definitions:

JSON
{
  "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft/2020-12/schema",
  "definitions": {
    "MediaObject": {
      "type": "object",
      "required": ["type", "url"],
      "properties": {
        "type": {
          "type": "string",
          "enum": ["image/jpeg", "image/png"]
        },
        "url": {
          "type": "string",
          "format": "uri"
        }
      }
    },
    "Person": {
      "type": "object",
      "required": ["name", "age"],
      "properties": {
        "name": {
          "type": "string"
        },
        "age": {
          "type": "integer"
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

This schema file defines two schemas: MediaObject and Person. These schemas can then be referenced from other schema files using the $ref keyword.

For example, the following schema file references the MediaObject and Person schemas defined in the previous example:

JSON
{
  "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft/2020-12/schema",
  "type": "object",
  "required": ["mediaObject", "person"],
  "properties": {
    "mediaObject": {
      "$ref": "#/components/schemas/MediaObject"
    },
    "person": {
      "$ref": "#/components/schemas/Person"
    }
  },
  "components": {
    "schemas": {
      "MediaObject": {
        "$ref": "#/definitions/MediaObject"
      },
      "Person": {
        "$ref": "#/definitions/Person"
      }
    }
  }
}

This schema file is valid, even though the root object is not a usable schema. This is because the root object is only used to define the MediaObject and Person schemas, which can then be referenced from other schema files.

You can use this approach to create a library of reusable schema definitions. This can make your schemas more modular and easier to maintain.

I was reading the jsonschema specification draft, and noticed that the “$defs” property was used to group definitions. I have noticed you and others have used the “definitions” property to group definitions. Which one is better, and why?

The $defs keyword was introduced in JSON Schema draft 2019-09. It is a newer and more standardized way to group definitions.

The definitions keyword is still valid, but it is deprecated. It is recommended that new schemas use the $defs keyword instead.

There are a few reasons why the $defs keyword is better:

  • It is more standardized. The definitions keyword was not defined in the JSON Schema specification, but was rather a convention that was widely used. The $defs keyword is defined in the JSON Schema specification, so it is more likely to be supported by all JSON schema implementations.
  • It is more explicit. The definitions keyword could be used for other purposes in addition to grouping definitions. For example, it could be used to define a set of named anchors for use in JSON Pointer expressions. The $defs keyword is specifically for grouping definitions, so it is more explicit and less likely to be confused with other features of JSON Schema.
  • It is more future-proof. The JSON Schema specification is still under development, and it is possible that the definitions keyword could be deprecated in the future. The $defs keyword is a newer keyword, so it is more likely to be supported in the future.

Overall, the $defs keyword is the better choice for grouping definitions in JSON Schema. It is more standardized, more explicit, and more future-proof.

However, it is important to note that the definitions keyword is still valid, and there are many existing JSON schemas that use it. If you are working with an existing JSON schema that uses the definitions keyword, there is no need to change it to use the $defs keyword.

As stated, if the root schema only provides the definitions, then it is valid, and although the “definitions” property is often used for grouping definitions, it has actually been standardized to be “$defs” instead, but definitions is still valid and has been used from before the property was standardized.

When the URL of an iframe is changed within the iframe, the iframe element’s “src” attribute does not change. What is the reasoning for this?

I asked Bard AI about why iframes don’t update the src attribute when the content changes, and got a very logical response.

Thinking about it, one obvious point is that the content within the iframe should not leak any data in the page. This is because in the iframe, the content may include something like an OAuth login, or query state. It is possible that the query parameters could contain something like an OAuth code or sensitive search queries, which should definitely not be shared with the parent DOM.

The full response is below.

There are a few reasons why the iframe element’s src attribute does not change when the URL of an iframe is changed within the iframe.

First, it is important to remember that an iframe is a separate document from the parent document. When you change the URL of an iframe within the iframe, you are actually changing the URL of the embedded document, not the iframe element itself.

Second, the src attribute of an iframe element is read-only. This means that once the src attribute is set, it cannot be changed.

Finally, there is a security risk associated with allowing iframes to change their own src attribute. If an iframe were able to change its own src attribute, it could potentially load malicious content from a different domain.

To avoid these problems, if you need to change the URL of an iframe, you must do so from the parent document. You can do this using JavaScript to set the src attribute of the iframe element.

Here is an example of how to change the URL of an iframe using JavaScript:

JavaScript
// Get the iframe element
var iframe = document.getElementById('myIframe');

// Set the src attribute of the iframe element
iframe.src = 'https://new-url.com';

When you set the src attribute of an iframe element using JavaScript, the iframe will be reloaded with the new URL.

It is important to note that you can only change the URL of an iframe if the iframe is from the same domain as the parent document. If the iframe is from a different domain, you will need to use a cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) request to change the URL of the iframe.